Deconstructing the Neoliberal Character of the European Union: A Major Source of Leftist Dissent Over the EU in Turkish Civil Society
Fuat Keyman and Ahmet İçduygu, “Globalization, Civil Society and Citizenship in Turkey: Actors, Boundaries and Discourses.” Citizenship Studies 7 (2003): 221
Romain Pasquier and Julien Weisbein, “L’Europe au microscope du local. Manifeste pour une sociologie politique de l’intégration communautaire.” Politique européenne 12 (2004): 13
Hayat Kabasakal and Muzaffer Bodur, “Leadership and Culture in Turkey: A Multifaceted Phenomenon.” in Culture and Leadership Across the World: The Globe Book of In-Depth Studies of 25 Societies, edited by Chhokar Jagdeep, Felix Brodbeck and Robert House. London: Routledge(2007): 835-875.
It is largely believed that the EU accession process has been a crucial tool in the democratisation and modernisation of the country. Nevertheless, many civil society leaders question this assertion.
Ruud Koopmans, “Who Inhabits the European Public Sphere? Winners and losers, supporters and opponents in Europeanized public debates.” European Journal of Political Research 46(2007): 183-210.
Thomas Diez, “Speaking Europe: The Politics of Integration Discourse.” Manuscript for Journal of European Policy 6 (1999):4.
To illustrate, as Henderson (2001:4) suggests for the post-communist states, opposing attitudes towards the EU-membership are associated with a scepticism to modernisation and post-communist economic reform. Hence, it is more common among the losers of the transformation process.
Gary Marks and Marco Steenbergen, 2004. European Integration and Political Conflict, (Cambridge University Press: Cambridge 2004)
Donatella Della Porta and Manuela Caiani, Social Movements and Europeanization, (Oxford University Press: Oxford Della Porta 2009)
Patrick Chamorel, “Anti-Europeanism and Euroskepticism in the United States.” in Hard Power, Soft Power and the Future of Transatlantic Relations, edited by Thomas L. Ilgen. London: AshgateChamorel (2006): 163-193
Paul Hainsworth, Carolyn O’Brien and Paul Mitchell, “The Politics of Euroscepticism on the French Right.” in Euroscepticism: Party Politics, National Identity and European Integration, edited by Robert Harmsen and Menno Spiering, European Studies 20, (Amsterdam: Editions: Rodopi, 2004), 37-58
Turkey can quite be seen as similar to the French case in terms of the focus of Kemalist rhetoric on the primacy of the nation-state and national unity. A certain meaning of Euroscepticism is associated with Mustafa Kemal Atatürk as the leader of Turkish nation parallel to as in the association of the French Euroscepticism with another important leader in twentieth century politics: Charles de Gaulle.
Susan Milner, “For an Alternative Europe: Euroscepticism and the French Left Since the Maastrict Treaty.” in Euroscepticism: Party Politics, National Identity and European Integration, edited by Robert Harmsen and Menno Spiering, European Studies 20. (Amsterdam: Rodopi, 2004), 59-81
Paul Taggart, and Aleks Szczerbiak, “Theorising Party-Based Euroscepticism: Problems of Definition, Measurement and Causality.” SEI Working Paper No. 69, (2004)
Lauren McLaren and Meltem Müftüler-Bac,. “Turkish Parliamentarians’ Perspectives on Turkey’s Relations with the European Union.” in Turkey and European Union, Domestic Politics, Economic Integration and International Dynamics, edited by Ali Carkoglu and Barry Rubin, (London: Frank Cass, 2003), 195-218
Ümit Cizre,. “Problems of Democratic Governance of Civil-Military Relations in Turkey and the EU Enlargement Zone”, European Journal of Political Research, 43, 1, (2004):107-125.
Gamze Avcı, “Turkish Political Parties and the EU Discourse in the Post-Helsinki Period: A Case of Europeanization.” in: Turkey and European Integration: Accession Prospects and Issues, edited by Nergis Canefe and Mehmet Ugur. ;(London and New York: Routledge, 2004), 194-215
Gamze Avcı, “The Justice and Development Party and the EU: Political Pragmatism in a Changing Environment.” South European Society and Politics 16, 3, (2011.): 409-421
Seckin Baris Gülmez, “The EU Policy of the Republican People's Party: An inquiry on the opposition party and Euro-skepticism in Turkey.” Turkish Studies 9,3, (2008): 423-436
Can Büyükbay, Euroskeptizismus in der Türkei. Die Republikanische Volkspartei (CHP) und die Nationalistische Bewegungspartei (MHP) im Vergleich. (Saarbrücken: VDM Verlag, 2010)
Can Büyükbay,. “Patterns of Party-Based Euroscepticism in Turkey.” International Review of Turkish Studies 1,2, (2011): 78-114.
Can Büyükbay, “Gründe und Ausformungen des Euroskeptizismus bei der Republikanischen Volkspartei (CHP) und bei der Nationalistischen Bewegungspartei (MHP).” European Journal of Turkish Studies. (2011) Retrieved: http://ejts.revues.org/index4370.html
Can Büyükbay,: “Limited Autonomy of the Civil Society and the Misuse of the EU Accession Process.” Centre for Policy Analysis and Research on Turkey 1, 5, (2012): 6-10. Retrieved (http://researchturkey.org/?p=1528).
Can Büyükbay and Adis Merdzanovic, “Comparing Euroscepticism in Turkey and Bosnia.” (Presented at the 19th International Conference of Europeanists, Council for European Studies, 22-24 March 2012, Boston.)
Hakan Yılmaz, “Euroscepticism in Turkey: Doubts, Anxieties and Fears of the Turkish Public Concerning Europe and the European Union.” (Open Society Institute: Istanbul. 2003)
Çigdem Kentmen, “Determinants of Support for EU Membership in Turkey: Islamic Attachments, Utilitarian Considerations and National Identity.” European Union Politics 9, 4, (2008): 487-510.
Sedef Eylemer and İlky Taş, “Pro-EU and Eurosceptic Circles in Turkey.” Journal of Communist Studies and Transition Politics 23,4, (2007): 561-577.
Engin Yıldırım, “Turkish Labour Confederations and Turkey's Membership of the European Union.” Economic and Industrial Democracy, 29, 3, (2008): 362-387.
John Fitzgibbon, “Citizens Against Europe? Civil Society and Eurosceptic Protest in Ireland, the United Kingdom and Denmark.” Journal of Common Market Studies 51, 1, (2013): 105-121.
The White Paper on European Governance (2001:14)
For practical reasons, I have avoided a narrow usage of civil society, which would have excluded many important actors from the analysis.
The CONECCS-EU Civil Society Database (2011)
Fuat Keyman and Ahmet İçduygu, “Globalization, Civil Society and Citizenship in Turkey: Actors, Boundaries and Discourses.” Citizenship Studies 7 (2003): 219-234
I consider knowledge produced from the interview to be pragmatic because “Today, the legitimacy question of whether a study is scientific, or whether it leads to true knowledge, tends to be replaced by the pragmatic question of whether it provides useful knowledge. Good research is research that works… There is an insistence in pragmatism that ideas and meanings derive their legitimacy from enabling us to cope with the world in which we find ourselves” (Kvale, Brinkmann 2009:56). Hence, interviewing is interpreted as a craft, as a knowledge-producing activity and as a social practice (Kvale, Brinkmann 2009:17).
Consequently, carrying the direct experiences and their influences on the perception of the elites may have contributed greatly to modelling and theorising endeavours in Euroscepticism field.
Ruth Wodak, “The Discourse-historical Approach.” in Methods of Critical Discourse Analysis, edited by Ruth Wodak and Michael Mayer (London: SAGE, 2001), 63-95
Thomas Diez, “Speaking Europe: The Politics of Integration Discourse.” Manuscript for Journal of European Policy 6,4(1999):1-25.
Norman Fairclough and Ruth Wodak, “Critical Discourse Analysis.” in Discourse as Social Interaction, edited by Teun A. van Dijk. (London: SAGE, 1997) 258-284
Gilbert Weiss and Ruth Wodak, “Theory and Interdisciplinarity in Critical Discourse Analysis. An Introduction.” in Theory and Interdisciplinarity in Critical Discourse Analysis, edited by Gilbert Weiss and Ruth Wodak (London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003) 1-34
Ruth Wodak,. “The Discourse-historical Approach.” in Methods of Critical Discourse Analysis, edited by Ruth Wodak and Michael Mayer. (London: SAGE, 2001) 63-95
M. Krzyzanowski and F. Oberhuber, (Un)doing Europe: Discourse and Practices in Negotiating the EU Constitution. (Brussels: P.I.E.-Peter Lang, 2007)
Wodak, Ruth.. “The Discourse-historical Approach.” in Methods of Critical Discourse Analysis, edited by Ruth Wodak and Michael Mayer. (London: SAGE, 2001) 63-95
Disk Van, A.Teun, “On the Analysis of Parliamentary Debates on Immigration.” in The Semiotics of Racism, Approaches to Critical Discourse Analysis, edited by Martin Reisigl and Ruth Wodak. (Vienna: Passagen Verlag, 2000): 85-103
Paul Chilton and Christina Schäffner. “Discourse and Politics.” in Discourse as Social Interaction, edited by Teun A. van Dijk. Volume 2, Discourse Studies: A Multidisciplinary Introduction. (London: Sage, 1997) 206-230
Hüseyin Demirdüzen, Board Member, Turkish Medical Association, (İstanbul, 30 January 2012: 43-48)
Ünsal Yıldız, President, Eğitim-Sen, Education Trade Union, (Ankara, 6 April 2012): 1177-1180
Semra Ocak, Head of Istanbul Section, TMOBB CMO, Chamber of Environmental Engineers, (24 January 2012 ):80-83
Semra Ocak: 107-110
Kıvanç Eliaçık, Head of International Relations Department (DISK), Revolutionary Labour Unions Confederation of Turkey, (İstanbul, 24 February 2012, 135-141)
Fahrettin Yokuş, General Secretary, Kamu-Sen, Turkish Public Workers Labor Union, (Ankara, 10 April 2012, 1478-81)
Necdet Saraç, Deputy President, ABF, Alevi-Bektaşi Federation, (Ankara, 10 April 2012: 203-211)
Yalman stresses that “analysing the state transformation that Turkey has been experiencing under the AKP governments requires a detailed look at the party`s skilful manipulation of neoliberalisation with Islamisation in building its hegemonic opposition to the established Republican regime.” Yalman, Galip.. “Politics and Discourse under the AKP’s Rule: The Marginalisation of Class-Based Politics, Erdoğanisation, and Post-Secularism.” In Silent Violence: Neoliberalism, Islamist Politics and the AKP Years in Turkey, edited by Simten Cosar and Gamse Yücesan-Özdemir (Ottawa: Red Quill Books, 2012)
Coşar, Simten and Gamze Yücesan-Özdemir, eds. 2012. Silent Violence: Neoliberalism, Islamic Politics and the AKP years in Turkey. Ottawa: Red Quill Books (Cosar and Özdemir 2012:11)
Baki Çınar, General Secretary, KESK, Confederation of Public Workers’ Unions, (Ankara, 10 April 2012: 1475-78)
Board member, DISA, (Istanbul. 20 May 2012: 630)
Saraç: 1338- 1340
Baki Çınar: 1230-1240
Baki Çınar: 930-935
Martin Reisigl and Ruth Wodak, The Semiotics of Racism, Approaches to Critical Discourse Analysis (Vienna: Passagen Verlag, 2000): 81.
Doğan Berkmek, President, AVF, Federation of Alevi Foundations, (İstanbul, 27 February 2012, 817-822)
Hulusi Zeybek, board member (IHD), Human Rights Association, (İstanbul, 23 January 2012 :38-43)
Faruk Büyükkocak, President of Region 1 TURK-IS, Confederation of Turkish Trade Unions, (İstanbul, 9 March 2012: 976-983)
TIHV, Turkish Human Rights Foundation, General Secretary,( Ankara, 12 April 2012:1380-1387)
Engin Yıldırım, “Turkish Labour Confederations and Turkey's Membership of the European Union.” Economic and Industrial Democracy, 29, 3,( 2008):362.
Seckin Baris Gülmez, “The EU Policy of the Republican People's Party: An inquiry on the opposition party and Euro-skepticism in Turkey.” Turkish Studies 9, 3, (2008): 423-436.
Tanja A Börzel and Thomas Risse, “Conceptualizing the Domestic Impact of Europe.” in The Politics of Europeanization, edited by Kevin Featherstone and Claudio M. Radaelli. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003) 63
Richard Hyman,. “The Europeanization – or the Erosion – of Industrial Relation.” Industrial Relations Journal 32, 4, (2001): 280-94.
John Fitzgibbon,. “Citizens Against Europe? Civil Society and Eurosceptic Protest in Ireland, the United Kingdom and Denmark.” Journal of Common Market Studies 51, 1, (2013): 105
Peter Mair, “Political Parties and Party Systems.” In Europeanisation: New Research Agendas, edited by Paolo Graziano and Maarten P. Vink. (Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007), 162