Eritrea's Relation with IGAD and the OAU/AU: the Domestic and International Dynamics

Befekadu Bogale
1.368 674

Abstract


The state of Eritrea joined the club of sovereign states on the early years of the 1990s. Though many were optimist of the new state's contribution for enhanced interstate cooperation in the volatile horn of Africa region, the early years' optimism never stayed longer and the Eritrean state soon begun to collide with the states of the region and beyond. Since the mid-1990s, the relationship between the state of Eritrea and her four immediate neighbors i.e. Sudan, Yemen, Ethiopia and Djibouti, have witnessed irregularities ranging from diplomatic confrontation to armed clashes. The armed clashes ranged from the bloody Ethio-Eritrean war of 1998 to 2000, which was estimated to have consumed the life of at least 70,000 individuals from both sides, to the minor and ad hoc clashes with the forces of Djibouti in June 2008. The Eritrean state's rough relation with the neighboring states is replicated as far as the relationship with the Intergovernmental Organizations is concerned. Particularly, the state's relationship with the African Intergovernmental Organizations is irregular for large part to date. On these background, this article tries to explicit the dynamics of the foreign policy and relations of Eritrea focusing on the country's relation with the two African Intergovernmental Organizations (one sub-regional and the other regional) by using historical descriptive methodology and the three major levels of analysis in international relations as the framework of analysis.

Keywords


Eritrea, Levels of Analysis, Intergovernmental Organizations

Full Text:

PDF


DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21599/atjir.72052

References


Books and Book Chapters Berouk, Mesfin. “The Horn of Africa Security Complex.” In Regional Security in Post-Cold War Horn of Africa, edited by Roba Sharamo and Mesfin Berouk, 1-30. Pretoria: ISS, 2011.

Breuning, Marijke. Foreign Policy Analysis: A Comparative Introduction. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 200 Connell, Dan. “Eritrea and the United States: Towards a new US Policy.” In Eritrea’s External Relations; Understanding Its Regional Role and Foreign Policy, edited by Richard Reid, 131-149. London: Chatham House, 2009.

Gaim, Kibreab. “Eritrean-Sudanese Relations in Historical Perspectives.” In Eritrea’s External Relations; Understanding Its Regional Role and Foreign Policy, edited by Richard Reid, 71-97. London: Chatham House, 200 Henderson, Conway. International Relations; Conflict and Cooperation at the Turn of 21stCentury. Boston: Mc-Graw Hill, 1998.

Holsti, K.J. International Politics; A Framework for Analysis. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1995.

Karns, Margaret and Karen Mingst. International Organizations: The Politics and Processes of Global Governance. New York: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2010.

Kidane, Mengisteab. “What has gone wrong with Eritrea’s Foreign Relation?” In Eritrea’s External Relations; Understanding Its Regional Role and Foreign Policy, edited by Richard Reid, 45-70. London: Chatham House, 200 Medhane, Tadesse. Turning Conflict into Cooperation: Towards an Energy-Led Integration in the Horn of Africa. Addis Ababa: Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung, 2004.

Mingst, Karen A. Essentials of International Relations. New York: W.W Norton and Company, 2003.

Mintz, Alex and Karl DeRouen. Understanding Foreign Policy Decision Making. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010.

Muller, Tanja. “Understanding the Dynamics of Foreign Policy-Making in a New State: The Case of Eritrea.” In Globalization and Emerging Trends in African Foreign Policy; A Comparative Perspective of Eastern Africa, edited by Korwa Adar and Peter Schrader, 27-51. Maryland: University Press of America, 2007.

Redie, Bereketeab. “The Eritrea-Ethiopia Conflict and the Algiers Agreement: Eritrea’s Road to Isolation.” In Eritrea’s External Relations; Understanding Its Regional Role and Foreign Policy, edited by Richard Reid, 98- London: Chatham House, 2009.

Ruth, Iyob. The Eritrean Struggle for Independence; Domination, Resistance, Nationalism 1941 – 1993.

Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995.

Sally, Heally. “Hard and Soft Power: Some Thoughts on the Practice of Eritrean Foreign Policy.” In Eritrea’s External Relations; Understanding Its Regional Role and Foreign Policy, edited by Richard Reid, 150-160. London: Chatham House, 2009.

Singer, David. “The Level of Analysis Problem in International Relations.” In The International System: Theoretical Essays, edited by Klaur Knorr and Sidney Verba, 77-83. New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 19 Webber, Mark and Michael Smith. Foreign Policy in a Transformed World. Harlow, UK: Pearson Education Limited, 2002.

Wrong, Michela. I Didn’t Do it for You: How the World Betrayed a Small African Nation. New York: Harper Collins, 2005. Website Sources BBC. “AU calls

January 7, 2013. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/8064939.stm. for

Sally, Healy. “Eritrea’s Regional Role and Foreign Policy: Past, Present and Future Perspective,” Chatham House www.chathamhouse.org/sites/default/files/public/.../171207eritrea.pdf.

Shinn, David. “Eritrea’s Regional Relations,” The International Policy Digest, August 17, 2012. Accessed

December 3, 2012. http://www.internationalpolicydigest.org /2012/08/17/eritreas-regional-relations/.

Tesfa-Alem, Tekle. “Eritrea accuses Ethiopia of obstructing its efforts to rejoin IGAD.” Sudan Tribune, Sunday November 4, 2012. Accessed February1, 2013. http://www.sudantribune.com/spip.php?article44412.

UN. “Report of the UN Monitoring Group on Somalia and Eritrea,” March 26, 2011. Accessed January 3, 20 http://www.un.org /ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=S/2011/433. December 13, 20